Overview

    Dehydration occurs when you use or lose more fluid than you take in, and your body doesn't have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions. If you don't replace lost fluids, you will get dehydrated.

    Anyone may become dehydrated, but the condition is especially dangerous for young children and older adults.

    The most common cause of dehydration in young children is severe diarrhea and vomiting. Older adults naturally have a lower volume of water in their bodies, and may have conditions or take medications that increase the risk of dehydration.

    This means that even minor illnesses, such as infections affecting the lungs or bladder, can result in dehydration in older adults.

    Dehydration also can occur in any age group if you don't drink enough water during hot weather — especially if you are exercising vigorously.

    You can usually reverse mild to moderate dehydration by drinking more fluids, but severe dehydration needs immediate medical treatment.

    Symptoms

    Thirst isn't always a reliable early indicator of the body's need for water. Many people, particularly older adults, don't feel thirsty until they're already dehydrated. That's why it's important to increase water intake during hot weather or when you're ill.

    The signs and symptoms of dehydration also may differ by age.

    Infant or young child

    • Dry mouth and tongue
    • No tears when crying
    • No wet diapers for three hours
    • Sunken eyes, cheeks
    • Sunken soft spot on top of skull
    • Listlessness or irritability

    Adult

    • Extreme thirst
    • Less frequent urination
    • Dark-colored urine
    • Fatigue
    • Dizziness
    • Confusion

    When to see a doctor

    Call your family doctor if you or a loved one:

    • Has had diarrhea for 24 hours or more
    • Is irritable or disoriented and much sleepier or less active than usual
    • Can't keep down fluids
    • Has bloody or black stool

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    Causes

    Sometimes dehydration occurs for simple reasons: You don't drink enough because you're sick or busy, or because you lack access to safe drinking water when you're traveling, hiking or camping.

    Other dehydration causes include:

    • Diarrhea, vomiting. Severe, acute diarrhea — that is, diarrhea that comes on suddenly and violently — can cause a tremendous loss of water and electrolytes in a short amount of time. If you have vomiting along with diarrhea, you lose even more fluids and minerals.
    • Fever. In general, the higher your fever, the more dehydrated you may become. The problem worsens if you have a fever in addition to diarrhea and vomiting.
    • Excessive sweating. You lose water when you sweat. If you do vigorous activity and don't replace fluids as you go along, you can become dehydrated. Hot, humid weather increases the amount you sweat and the amount of fluid you lose.
    • Increased urination. This may be due to undiagnosed or uncontrolled diabetes. Certain medications, such as diuretics and some blood pressure medications, also can lead to dehydration, generally because they cause you to urinate more.

    Risk factors

    Anyone can become dehydrated, but certain people are at greater risk:

    • Infants and children. The most likely group to experience severe diarrhea and vomiting, infants and children are especially vulnerable to dehydration. Having a higher surface area to volume area, they also lose a higher proportion of their fluids from a high fever or burns. Young children often can't tell you that they're thirsty, nor can they get a drink for themselves.
    • Older adults. As you age, your body's fluid reserve becomes smaller, your ability to conserve water is reduced and your thirst sense becomes less acute. These problems are compounded by chronic illnesses such as diabetes and dementia, and by the use of certain medications. Older adults also may have mobility problems that limit their ability to obtain water for themselves.
    • People with chronic illnesses. Having uncontrolled or untreated diabetes puts you at high risk of dehydration. Kidney disease also increases your risk, as do medications that increase urination. Even having a cold or sore throat makes you more susceptible to dehydration because you're less likely to feel like eating or drinking when you're sick.
    • People who work or exercise outside. When it's hot and humid, your risk of dehydration and heat illness increases. That's because when the air is humid, sweat can't evaporate and cool you as quickly as it normally does, and this can lead to an increased body temperature and the need for more fluids.

    Complications

    Dehydration can lead to serious complications, including:

    • Heat injury. If you don't drink enough fluids when you're exercising vigorously and perspiring heavily, you may end up with a heat injury, ranging in severity from mild heat cramps to heat exhaustion or potentially life-threatening heatstroke.
    • Urinary and kidney problems. Prolonged or repeated bouts of dehydration can cause urinary tract infections, kidney stones and even kidney failure.
    • Seizures. Electrolytes — such as potassium and sodium — help carry electrical signals from cell to cell. If your electrolytes are out of balance, the normal electrical messages can become mixed up, which can lead to involuntary muscle contractions and sometimes to a loss of consciousness.
    • Low blood volume shock (hypovolemic shock). This is one of the most serious, and sometimes life-threatening, complications of dehydration. It occurs when low blood volume causes a drop in blood pressure and a drop in the amount of oxygen in your body.

    Prevention

    To prevent dehydration, drink plenty of fluids and eat foods high in water such as fruits and vegetables. Letting thirst be your guide is an adequate daily guideline for most healthy people.

    People may need to take in more fluids if they are experiencing conditions such as:

    • Vomiting or diarrhea. If your child is vomiting or has diarrhea, start giving extra water or an oral rehydration solution at the first signs of illness. Don't wait until dehydration occurs.
    • Strenuous exercise. In general, it's best to start hydrating the day before strenuous exercise. Producing lots of clear, dilute urine is a good indication that you're well-hydrated. During the activity, replenish fluids at regular intervals and continue drinking water or other fluids after you're finished.
    • Hot or cold weather. You need to drink additional water in hot or humid weather to help lower your body temperature and to replace what you lose through sweating. You may also need extra water in cold weather to combat moisture loss from dry air, particularly at higher altitudes
    • Illness. Older adults most commonly become dehydrated during minor illnesses — such as influenza, bronchitis or bladder infections. Make sure to drink extra fluids when you're not feeling well.

    Oct. 14, 2021

    Can dehydration cause thick blood?
    When you're dehydrated, you lose blood volume, which causes your blood to get thicker. That makes it harder for your heart to supply that blood to your muscles. As your heart works harder to pump that blood, your heart rate increases. more
    Does dehydration thicken the blood?
    When you're dehydrated, you lose blood volume, which causes your blood to get thicker. That makes it harder for your heart to supply that blood to your muscles. As your heart works harder to pump that blood, your heart rate increases. more
    What makes blood less thick?
    Thin blood with bleeding is less common than thick blood with blood clots. Hemophilia and von Willebrand's disease are two medical conditions that cause thin blood. Hemophiliacs are missing a blood clotting substance, which causes them to bleed into joints. more
    Does dehydrated blood get thick?
    When you're dehydrated, you lose blood volume, which causes your blood to get thicker. That makes it harder for your heart to supply that blood to your muscles. As your heart works harder to pump that blood, your heart rate increases. more
    Does dehydration make your blood thick?
    Dehydration can lead to a drop in your blood volume level and causes your blood to thicken. This can happen when you are the slightest bit dehydrated. more
    What causes thick blood?
    Thick blood is caused by heavy proteins, or by too much blood in the circulation. Too many red cells, white cells, and platelets will result in blood thickening. Another cause is an imbalance in the blood clotting system. more
    What are symptoms of thick blood?
    Thick blood can lead to strokes or tissue and organ damage. Symptoms include lack of energy (fatigue) or weakness, headaches, dizziness, shortness of breath, visual disturbances, nose bleeds, bleeding gums, heavy menstrual periods, and bruising. more
    Which blood type is thick?
    The main findings of our study are that (1) O type subjects have thicker FCT and less TCFA compared to non-O type subjects and (2) O type subjects have larger minimum lumen area and minimum lumen diameter compared to non-O type subjects. more
    What does thick dark blood mean?
    A person with thick blood, or hypercoagulability, may be prone to blood clots. When blood is thicker or stickier than usual, this often results from an issue with the clotting process. Specifically, an imbalance of the proteins and cells responsible for blood clotting can lead to hypercoagulability. more
    What blood type is thick?
    The main findings of our study are that (1) O type subjects have thicker FCT and less TCFA compared to non-O type subjects and (2) O type subjects have larger minimum lumen area and minimum lumen diameter compared to non-O type subjects. more
    Does thick blood cause baldness?
    A few scientific studies have suggested that people with hair loss may have fewer blood vessels. But no one had actually measured how closely blood vessel growth is correlated with hair growth, or what might cause scalp vessels to grow in the first place. more

    Source: www.mayoclinic.org

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