WWI was an interesting time for the military. Our force was still new to being centralized, and converting state-led militias into one cohesive force took time and money. At the start of WWI, the Army had a scant 127,000 soldiers with 181,000 National Guard service members. What we needed were millions of soldiers to help the forces in France and England defeat Germany. In addition to needing qualified troops for ground movements, the US needed to find a way to offset its paltry military artillery units with the latest and greatest fighting technology.

    But what is a howitzer, anyway?

    If you don’t have a Red Leg in your family, you might not know the difference between artillery equipment. Never fear! We’re here to help. Here’s a quick primer on the difference between a howitzer compared with cannons.

    Let’s take it way back to the early 1830s when the Army realized they needed a smaller, lighter, and more versatile cannon that could still have almost the same range as a regular cannon. Their answer to this problem was to shorten the barrel and change the shape to be more funnel-shaped instead of cylindrical.

    Published in “The 55th artillery (C.A.C.) in the American expeditionary forces, France, 1918” by Frederick Morse Cutler, 1920.

    The result was what we now know as a howitzer, a name taken from the Prussian word Haubitze, which means sling or basket.

    Cannons can be direct fires weapons or indirect fires weapons, whereas a howitzer is strictly used for indirect fire – incredibly useful when the terrain of a battlefield is challenging to navigate. Howitzers can hit targets by arching rounds over objects, whereas cannons are directly aimed at a target and fired.

    In full swing production since the 1830s, howitzers in all their forms have proved to be incredibly useful as part of the war effort … when they’re available.

    There weren’t enough regiments

    Before the US involvement in WWI, the Army only had nine authorized artillery regiments. By comparison, the Army currently has 27 active duty artillery regiments and 42 Reserve components. To say that we needed to grow our force quickly at the onset of WWI. But in lieu of a well-trained and combat-ready force, military leaders looked to other types of ways to bridge the gap. This is the story of the 155mm Howitzer of WWI and how it helped win the war.

    Shortly after entering the war, the US formed 12 additional artillery units, bringing the total up to a rounding 21 regiments. These units helped supplement the National Guard and organized reserve artillery regiments, but it wasn’t nearly enough to stand up to German forces.

    US gunners with 155 mm cannon, Varennes, France, World War I. (United States Army Signal Corps)

    Regiments are great, but they weren’t enough

    Sure, 21 units were better than nine, but it wasn’t enough since we didn’t have experienced personnel to arm the guns. In addition to needing soldiers, the Army also didn’t have enough guns or ammunition. The simplest solution for the WWI Army was to supply our forces with guns from France since there were plenty of qualified French artillery instructors and more than enough guns and ammunition.

    Light artillery wasn’t the best choice

    As the US entered the war, we only had a handful of 3-inch guns and 6-inch howitzers. The French forces replaced those with 75mm guns, 155mm, and 240mm howitzers. However, Army leaders held onto the idea that light artillery was more suitable for the current conditions. They couldn’t have been more wrong.

    The changing face of battle

    In fact, WWI’s trench warfare increased the need for heavy artillery like the 155mm howitzer and decreased the need for light field guns, like those in our arsenal. Howitzers have a greater range and are far more powerful, better suited for destroying fortified enemy targets, and reaching rear areas of the battlefield.

    Without the use of the 155m howitzer, it’s possible that the conclusion of WWI would have looked very different. And, if it weren’t for the French, who were willing to share their artillery, ammunition, and knowledge with us, the US involvement in the war might have been incredibly altered, as well.

    How powerful is a 155mm howitzer?
    The howitzer's maximum range is 18,100m when firing standard 95-pound M107 HE and M864 DPICM projectiles, and 30,000m when firing 97-pound M549 RAP rounds. The development of the M198 155mm towed howitzer began in 1968 when a lightweight replacement was sought for the WWII era M114 155mm howitzer. more
    What is the power of the purse How does it act as a check on the power of the executive branch quizlet?
    What is the "power of the purse" and how does it act as a check on the power of the executive branch? This is the power to approve spending by the Federal Gov't. Congress can prevent the executive branch from carrying out policies that it disagrees with. more
    What is Encantos power?
    Mirabel's Power Is Her Ability To Bring People Together Mirabel herself, with the uniting love of her family, empowers everyone. It's no mistake that "Mirabel" sounds like "miracle" – the same way "Madrigal" sounds like "magical." The movie also points out her power in some key lines of dialogue. more
    Is there an avenging power in nature not one power but two?
    Is there an avenging power in nature? Not one power, but two. ' Obviously, the war in the heart of nature has a double meaning, suggesting both a war internal to nature, and the human war that is being fought out amid such immense natural beauty. more
    Which thinker argues that the purpose of religion is to maintain social power structures ie to keep the powerful in power )?
    Above all, Durkheim believed that religion is about community: it binds people together (social cohesion), promotes behaviour consistency (social control), and offers strength for people during life's transitions and tragedies (meaning and purpose). more
    What is meant by referent power give an example of a person with referent power?
    An example of referent power in the workplace is a manager who is admired and respected by his subordinates and seen as a role model. In difficult situations, employees consider what their manager would do and try to take his or her example. more
    What was Encanto power?
    The character has the ability to predict the future and see things that will come to pass, with his visions sometimes changing depending on the actions the person involved takes. His ability made him an outcast in his family, though, because everyone around him perceived his predictions as a bad omen. more
    What do you think is the best power plant considering the factors affecting the power plant design?
    Nuclear Has The Highest Capacity Factor This basically means nuclear power plants are producing maximum power more than 92% of the time during the year. That's about nearly 2 times more as natural gas and coal units, and almost 3 times or more reliable than wind and solar plants. more
    Which is more eco friendly power generation from coal power generation from natural gas Why?
    Solution : Power generation from natural gas is more eco-friendly . Natural gas does not contain sulphur and hence its burning does not cause major - pollution by forming sulphur dioxide . more
    What is the difference between power of attorney and lasting power of attorney?
    An ordinary power of attorney is only valid while you have the mental capacity to make your own decisions. If you want someone to be able to act on your behalf if there comes a time when you don't have the mental capacity to make your own decisions you should consider setting up a lasting power of attorney. more
    Which of the following device is used for power factor correction in power factor correction substation?
    For power factor correction of high-voltage power systems or large, fluctuating industrial loads, power electronic devices such as the Static VAR compensator or STATCOM are increasingly used. more

    Source: www.wearethemighty.com

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