As your loved one with Alzheimer's disease or another kind of dementia progresses into the later stages, there are often multiple treatment decisions that must be made. One that family members may face is the use of a feeding tube.

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    What Is a Feeding Tube?

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is a type of feeding tube commonly used for people with dementia (and many others without dementia, as well).   The decision to place a PEG tube in someone results in surgery where a tube is connected to the stomach and comes out of the abdomen. After placement, a liquid nutrition formula is then pumped into the tube and stomach.

    Decisions to Be Made About Tube Feeding

    A Common Scenario

    Frank, who is 89 and had advanced Alzheimer's disease, lives at a nursing home because his wife just can't provide the 24-hour, 7 days-a-week care that he requires.

    She visits frequently and is very caring and supportive of Frank. Recently, he began coughing and developed a fever (symptoms that could indicate aspiration pneumonia ), so the facility asked Frank's wife Vivian if she wanted to have him sent to the hospital. She said "Yes" so he was brought to the hospital.

    The hospital found that he did indeed have aspiration pneumonia and started him on a course of antibiotics to treat pneumonia. They also conducted a swallow study which showed that due to Frank's late-stage Alzheimer's, his ability to swallow was impaired. They concluded that he would continue to be at risk for further aspiration pneumonia episodes, as well as choking. The dietitian also conducted an evaluation and concluded that Frank was not taking in enough food by mouth and was losing weight gradually.

    Here's Where the Decision Arises

    Because of the results of his swallowing evaluation, the physician asked Vivian if she wanted to have a tube put in Frank's stomach to provide him with nutrition.

    Reasons to Proceed With Feeding Tubes

    Vivian debated about the doctor's question and decided to have the PEG tube placed. She did so because she doesn't want Frank to develop another aspiration pneumonia.   Since the swallow study indicated that he was a risk for choking and pneumonia, the hospital recommended limited food and fluids by mouth. She is concerned that he would starve to death without a feeding tube and feels that by placing a feeding tube in Frank, he'll at least not feel hungry and also won't be at risk for choking and pneumonia.

    Research on Feeding Tubes in Dementia

    Do Tube Feedings Prevent Aspiration Pneumonia?

    While it's possible that a tube feeding may reduce the chance of food or liquid going into the lungs and developing a pneumonia, this can still occur due to saliva going down the wrong way. Dementia eventually affects the ability to eat and swallow. It is not uncommon to see someone with a tube feeding still develop an aspiration pneumonia.

    Do Tube Feedings Heal or Prevent Pressure Ulcers?

    As a person with dementia further declines, her body is at risk for developing a decubitus ulcer (sometimes called a bed sore) from being in one position too long or putting too much pressure in one area. Good nutrition can assist in healing and preventing these open areas.   However, the use of a feeding tube can increase the risk for a pressure sore because one of the risks of tube feeding is diarrhea. Diarrhea can significantly increase the chances of skin breakdown because of its acidic nature. It can also cause stomach discomfort and gas. Research indicates that tube feedings do not prevent pressure ulcers.  

    Do Tube Feedings Extend Life?

    Some people choose tube feedings for a loved one because they're not ready to let that person go yet, or they feel like they'd be giving up on their loved one. Research, however, does not demonstrate increased life expectancy for people who have dementia and a feeding tube compared with those without a tube.  

    Some research suggests that swallowing difficulties and weight loss are the beginning of the dying process and thus a feeding tube, though it provides nutrition, cannot reverse that end-of-life process. Studies have found that in people with advanced dementia , those with a feeding tube have the same survival rate as those without a feeding tube.  

    Do Tube Feedings Provide Adequate Nutrition and Hydration?

    Tube feeding formulas can be adjusted to provide greater or fewer calories and nutrients as is appropriate. Studies have shown, however, that weight loss continues and laboratory results that measure nutrition and hydration are often not improved, despite feeding tube placement.

    Do Tube Feedings Improve Quality of Life?

    Eating is often a social event, especially in a facility environment. With a tube feeding, those residents are often not in the dining room while others are eating, causing an increased chance of social isolation. People with tube feedings may also crave food or liquids by mouth for the taste and feel of the experience.

    Some physicians will issue an order for "pleasure feeding" which allows for minimal amounts of oral feeding and drinking. This is typically because they have considered the person's quality of life , and although the swallow function may be limited, the person and the family feel it's worth the risk to enjoy some food and drink.

    Other Options Instead of Tube Feeding

    • Hand feeding: Hand feeding is just as it sounds- feeding a person one bite at a time of tasty, easy to eat food. Hand feeding is strongly supported by research for people with advanced dementia.
    • Head of bed up after meals: If the person is mostly bed-bound, keeping his head elevated for around a half an hour after eating may help prevent aspiration pneumonia.
    • Offer a soft or pureed diet: A soft diet where the meat is ground up can be easier to eat for the person with limited eating abilities. Pureed diets may be helpful when a person's ability to chew food has declined.
    • Use of a sippy cup or straw for liquids: Cups with lids or straws can assist people with swallowing difficulties and may decrease the risk of choking.

    Risks Associated With Feeding Tube

    • Hospitalization for tube placement
    • Pulling out the tube due to restlessness
    • Infection in the tube placement
    • Restraints due to risk of pulling out the tube  
    • Strong desire for oral food and fluids

    A Word From Verywell

    Making decisions for someone as they near the end of their life can be very difficult. You may feel the weight of the responsibility to carry out their wishes, even as you process your own emotions that develop from watching someone you love decline. Learning more about the research behind certain decisions can help give you peace of mind in this process. As always, you should consult the doctor about these decisions, given their knowledge of your loved one's condition and individual history.

    Disclaimer

    **Please note that the information included on this website and linked to both on and from this site is not medical advice and is for guidance and information only. I've made every effort to report information that is medically accurate and scientifically researched, but this is not a substitute for care and guidance from a physician.**

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    Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

    1. Kumagai R, Kubokura M, Sano A, et al. Clinical evaluation of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding in Japanese patients with dementia . Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2012;66(5):418-22. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2012.02378.x

    2. American Geriatrics Society Feeding Tubes in Advanced Dementia Position Statement . Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2014;62(8), pp.1590-1593. doi:10.1111/jgs.12924

    3. Teno JM, Gozalo P, Mitchell SL, Kuo S, Fulton AT, Mor V. Feeding tubes and the prevention or healing of pressure ulcers . Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(9):697–701. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.1200

    4. Goldberg LS, Altman KW. The role of gastrostomy tube placement in advanced dementia with dysphagia: a critical review . Clin Interv Aging. 2014;9:1733–1739. Published 2014 Oct 14. doi:10.2147/CIA.S53153

    5. Lynch MC. Is tube feeding futile in advanced dementia ?. Linacre Q. 2016;83(3):283-307. doi:10.1080/00243639.2016.1211879

    Additional Reading

    • Li, I. Feeding Tubes in Patients with Severe Dementia . American Family Physician; 65(8):1605-1611.

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    Attention-seeking behavior—positive or negative—is referred to as narcissistic supply. Narcissistic supply is a form of psychological addiction where the narcissist requires, and even demands, limitless special treatment, admiration, importance, or validation to feed their sense of entitlement and self-centeredness. more
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    Does feed mean eat?
    To feed is defined as to provide food for someone or something, or to take in and eat food or to put more wood on a fire. An example of feed is when you prepare dinner for your family. An example of feed is when a newborn baby drinks milk from a bottle or when a cow consumes grass. more
    What foods feed parasites?
    Parasites eat glucose (sugar) so stay away from carbs like bread, pasta, rice and sugary fruits like mango and grapes. You can also talk to your doctor about this. All of these create an acidic environment, which parasites love. Meat and dairy were easy for me to give up, but coffee was a no-go. more
    What is creep feed?
    Creep feeding is the practice of providing supplemental feed (grain or forage) to nursing calves. This is usually done with the use of a creep gate, which is large enough for calves to enter the feeding area but too small to allow cows to pass. more
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    The constitution of Bangladesh defines food security as a human right and states that the government has the responsibility to feed its entire people. more
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    However, one must sometimes wonder if their country is self-sufficient in food. When talking about the United States, the answer is yes; the U.S. is one of the largest food exporters in the world. It is indeed, self-sufficient when it comes to food. more

    Source: www.verywellhealth.com

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