The Five Functions of Management was first described by Henri Fayol in his 1916 book Administration Industrielle et Generale. The Five Functions of Management is a general theory of business administration. It argues that management is comprised of five general functions: planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.
- Understanding the Five Functions of Management
- The Five Functions of Management
- Limitations of the Five Functions of Management
- Key takeaways:
- Connected Business Concepts To Five Functions Of Management
Understanding the Five Functions of Management
The Five Functions of Management was first described by Henri Fayol in his 1916 book Administration Industrielle et Generale.
Fayol, a French mining engineer, theorized that five functions were universal to management across various organizations. Each function describes a set of principles advising managers on how they can successfully lead their subordinates. What’s more, the theory helps managers see their role as more than just supervisory in nature.
Today, the five functions are still in use and are often collectively referred to as Fayolism. Let’s take a look at each of these functions in the next section.
The Five Functions of Management consist of:
- Planning – according to Fayol, planning is the hardest of the five functions. Managers must plan for the future and develop appropriate strategies to meet organizational goals. Furthermore, risks must be identified with plans in place to mitigate them. Planning must also be coordinated across different levels and consider the available human and non-human resources. Fayol also stressed the importance of forecasting at daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, five-yearly, and ten-yearly intervals.
- Organizing – or the process of assembling physical, financial , and human resources. This involves the identification of necessary activities, assignment of roles and responsibilities, and the delegation of authority.
- Commanding (Directing) – successful managers communicate clearly and honestly and act in a way that reflects company values. Their decisions are based on regular audits and they are capable of motivating and encouraging employees to use initiative.
- Coordinating – the fourth function aims to create harmony between the various activities within an organization . For example, spending should be proportional to available resources, production requirements, market demand, or stock levels. Fayol argued that regular meetings were also a good way to solidify relationships between different departments or activities. Harmony is also created by hiring employees who are suitably qualified to carry out their roles.
- Controlling – is progress being made toward the goals and objectives stated in the planning phase? If not, management needs to take corrective action.
Limitations of the Five Functions of Management
Despite its obvious advantages, Fayol’s theory has some drawbacks:
- Based on anecdotal evidence – the Five Functions of Management is based on Fayol’s own experiences during his time as director of a mining company. The theory does not incorporate empirical research and its application may be limited as a result.
- Inward-focused – with no credence given to the customer, each organization is structured to meet its own needs and not the needs of the much more important end-user.
- A lack of nuance – Fayol’s theory is rather broad and rigid. Its scope does not extend to the informal, micro-interactions or relationships between managers and subordinates. In more dynamic and modern organizations, the theory may not be able to facilitate effective management .
- The Five Functions of Management is a general theory of business administration highlighting five key areas: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.
- The Five Functions of Management provide a framework for effective management . The theory argues that the role of a manager is far more complex than the supervision of subordinates.
- The Five Functions of Management is broad, rigid, and may lack the nuance required for dynamic businesses. It also lacks any foundation in empirical research and does not focus on meeting the needs of the customer.
Connected Business Concepts To Five Functions Of Management
Toyota Production System
Toyota Production System (TPS) is an early form of
lean manufacturing created by auto-manufacturer Toyota. Created by the
Toyota Motor Corporation in the
1940s and 50s, the
Toyota Production System seeks to manufacture vehicles ordered by customers most quickly and efficiently possible.
Scientific Management The
ory was created by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1911 as a means of
encouraging industrial companies to switch to mass production. With a background in mechanical engineering, he applied engineering principles to workplace productivity on the
factory floor. Scientific Management The
ory seeks to find the
most efficient way of
performing a job in the
Poka-yoke is a Japanese quality control technique developed by former Toyota engineer Shigeo Shingo. Translated as “mistake-proof
ing”, poka-yoke aims to prevent defects in the
manufacturing process that are the
human error. Poka-yoke is a lean manufacturing technique that ensures that the
right conditions exist before a step in the
process is executed. This makes it a preventative form of
quality control since errors are
detected and the
n rectified before the
A Gemba Walk is a fundamental component of
. It describes the
personal observation of
work to learn more about it. Gemba is a Japanese word that loosely translates as “the
real place”, or in business , “the
place where value is created”. The
Gemba Walk as a concept was created by Taiichi Ohno, the
r of the
Toyota Production System of
lean manufacturing. Ohno wanted to encourage management
executives to leave the
fices and see where the
real work happened. This, he hoped, would build relationships between employees with vastly different skillsets and build trust.
Dual Track Agile
Product discovery is a critical part of
agile methodologies, as its aim is to ensure that products customers love are
built. Product discovery involves learning through a raft of
methods, including design thinking, lean start-up, and A/B testing to name a few. Dual Track Agile is an agile methodology containing two separate tracks: the
“discovery” track and the
Scaled Agile Lean Development (ScALeD) helps businesses discover a balanced approach to agile transition and scaling questions. The
ScALed approach helps businesses successfully respond to change. Inspired by a combination of
lean and agile values, ScALed is practitioner-based and can be completed through various agile frameworks and practices.
Lean manufacturing seeks to maximize product value while minimizing waste without sacrificing productivity. According to the
Lean Enterprise Research Centre (LERC), 60% of
a typical manufacturing process is waste. While the
waste is perhaps synonymous with lean manufacturing, the
goal of the
methodology is the
sustainable delivery of
value to the
Kanban is a lean manufacturing framework first developed by Toyota in the
late 1940s. The
Kanban framework is a means of
visualizing work as it moves through identifying potential bottlenecks. It does that through a process called just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing to optimize engineering processes, speed up manufacturing products, and improve the
go-to-market strategy .
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What are the five functions of management?
At the most fundamental level, management is a discipline that consists of a set of five general functions: planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling
. These five functions are part of a body of practices and theories on how to be a successful manager. more
How do you find marginal cost function from total cost function? Cost functions from marginal cost functions
- If C is the cost of producing an output x, then marginal cost function MC = dc/dx.
- Using integration, as the reverse process of differentiation, we obtain,
- Cost function C = ∫ ( MC ) dx + k.
- Where k is the constant of integration which is to be evaluated,
How do you find marginal revenue function from inverse demand function?
There is a close relationship between any inverse demand function for a linear demand equation and the marginal revenue function. For any linear demand function with an inverse demand equation of the form P = a - bQ, the marginal revenue function has the form MR = a - 2bQ
Could not find function or function reference study?
The 'could not find function or function reference' error happens when we use the incorrect name for a built-in function
. Those names in TradingView are quite precise: not only the name but also its capitalisation has to be correct. more
How do you find the cost function revenue function and profit function?
To obtain the cost function, add fixed cost and variable cost together
. 3) The profit a business makes is equal to the revenue it takes in minus what it spends as costs. To obtain the profit function, subtract costs from revenue. more
How do you find average cost function from total cost function?
The average cost function is A(x)=C(x)x A ( x ) = C ( x ) x , such that x>0. This shows that the average cost is found by dividing the total cost function by the number of units produced
How do you find the revenue function from the price demand function?
1) Revenue is equal to the number of units sold times the price per unit. To obtain the revenue function, multiply the output level by the price function
How do you find revenue function with demand function?
The revenue function is simply x multiplied by the demand function
. We know that to maximize profit, marginal revenue must equal marginal cost. This means we need to find C'(x) (marginal cost) and we need the Revenue function and its derivative, R'(x) (marginal revenue). more
How do you find the profit function from demand and cost function?
For the given cost and demand function, find the production level that will maximize profit. We know that to maximize profit, marginal revenue must equal marginal cost
. This means we need to find C'(x) (marginal cost) and we need the Revenue function and its derivative, R'(x) (marginal revenue). more
How do you find average cost function from cost function?
The average cost depends on the fixed costs, as well as the variable costs. The average cost function is A(x)=C(x)x A ( x ) = C ( x ) x , such that x>0. This shows that the average cost is found by dividing the total cost function by the number of units produced
Which function determines the cost function?
The general form of the cost function formula is C(x)=F+V(x)
C ( x ) = F + V ( x ) , where F is the total fixed costs, V is the variable cost, x is the number of units, and C(x) is the total production cost. more