The Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols are international treaties that contain the most important rules limiting the barbarity of war. They protect people who do not take part in the fighting (civilians, medics, aid workers) and those who can no longer fight (wounded, sick and shipwrecked troops, prisoners of war).

    The Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols are at the core of international humanitarian law, the body of international law that regulates the conduct of armed conflict and seeks to limit its effects.  They specifically protect people who are not taking part in the hostilities (civilians, health workers and aid workers) and those who are no longer participating in the hostilities, such as wounded, sick and shipwrecked soldiers and prisoners of war.  The Conventions and their Protocols call for measures to be taken to prevent or put an end to all breaches. They contain stringent rules to deal with what are known as " grave breaches ". Those responsible for grave breaches must be sought, tried or extradited, whatever nationality they may hold.

    The 1949 Geneva Conventions

    The first Geneva Convention protects wounded and sick soldiers on land during war.

    This Convention represents the fourth updated version of the Geneva Convention on the wounded and sick following those adopted in 1864, 1906 and 1929. It contains 64 articles. These provide protection for the wounded and sick, but also for medical and religious personnel, medical units and medical transports. The Convention also recognizes the distinctive emblems. It has two annexes containing a draft agreement relating to hospital zones and a model identity card for medical and religious personnel.  

     The second Geneva Convention protects wounded, sick and shipwrecked military personnel at sea during war.

    This Convention replaced Hague Convention of 1907 for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention. It closely follows the provisions of the first Geneva Convention in structure and content. It has 63 articles specifically applicable to war at sea. For example, it protects hospital ships. It has one annex containing a model identity card for medical and religious personnel.

     The third Geneva Convention applies to prisoners of war.

    This Convention replaced the Prisoners of War Convention of 1929. It contains 143 articles whereas the 1929 Convention had only 97. The categories of persons entitled to prisoner of war status were broadened in accordance with Conventions I and II. The conditions and places of captivity were more precisely defined, particularly with regard to the labour of prisoners of war, their financial resources, the relief they receive, and the judicial proceedings instituted against them. The Convention establishes the principle that prisoners of war shall be released and repatriated without delay after the cessation of active hostilities. The Convention has five annexes containing various model regulations and identity and other cards.

     The fourth Geneva Convention affords protection to civilians, including in occupied territory.

    The Geneva Conventions, which were adopted before 1949. were concerned with combatants only, not with civilians. The events of World War II showed the disastrous consequences of the absence of a convention for the protection of civilians in wartime. The Convention adopted in 1949 takes account of the experiences of World War II. It is composed of 159 articles. It contains a short section concerning the general protection of populations against certain consequences of war, without addressing the conduct of hostilities, as such, which was later examined in the Additional Protocols of 1977. The bulk of the Convention deals with the status and treatment of protected persons, distinguishing between the situation of foreigners on the territory of one of the parties to the conflict and that of civilians in occupied territory. It spells out the obligations of the Occupying Power vis-à-vis the civilian population and contains detailed provisions on humanitarian relief for populations in occupied territory. It also contains a specific regime for the treatment of civilian internees. It has three annexes containing a model agreement on hospital and safety zones, model regulations on humanitarian relief and model cards. 

    Common Article 3

    Article 3 , common to the four Geneva Conventions, marked a breakthrough, as it covered, for the first time, situations of non-international armed conflicts. These types of conflicts vary greatly. They include traditional civil wars, internal armed conflicts that spill over into other States or internal conflicts in which third States or a multinational force intervenes alongside the government. Common Article 3 establishes fundamental rules from which no derogation is permitted. It is like a mini-Convention within the Conventions as it contains the essential rules of the Geneva Conventions in a condensed format and makes them applicable to conflicts not of an international character:

    •  It requires humane treatment for all persons in enemy hands, without any adverse distinction. It specifically prohibits murder, mutilation, torture, cruel, humiliating and degrading treatment, the taking of hostages and unfair trial.
    •  It requires that the wounded, sick and shipwrecked be collected and cared for.
    •  It grants the ICRC the right to offer its services to the parties to the conflict.
    •  It calls on the parties to the conflict to bring all or parts of the Geneva Conventions into force through so-called special agreements.
    •  It recognizes that the application of these rules does not affect the legal status of the parties to the conflict.
    •  Given that most armed conflicts today are non-international, applying Common Article 3 is of the utmost importance. Its full respect is required. 

    Where do the Geneva Conventions apply?

    • States Party to the Geneva Conventions

    The Geneva Conventions entered into force on 21 October 1950. Ratification grew steadily through the decades: 74 States ratified the Conventions during the 1950s, 48 States did so during the 1960s, 20 States signed on during the 1970s, and another 20 States did so during the 1980s. Twenty-six countries ratified the Conventions in the early 1990s, largely in the aftermath of the break-up of the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and the former Yugoslavia.

    Seven new ratifications since 2000 have brought the total number of States Party to 194, making the Geneva Conventions universally applicable.

    The Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions

    In the two decades that followed the adoption of the Geneva Conventions, the world witnessed an increase in the number of non-international armed conflicts and wars of national liberation. In response, two Protocols Additional to the four 1949 Geneva Conventions were adopted in 1977. They strengthen the protection of victims of international (Protocol I) and non-international (Protocol II) armed conflicts and place limits on the way wars are fought. Protocol II was the first-ever international treaty devoted exclusively to situations of non-international armed conflicts.

    In 2005, a third Additional Protocol was adopted creating an additional emblem, the Red Crystal, which has the same international status as the Red Cross and Red Crescent emblems.

    • Additional Protocol I - international conflicts
    • Additional Protocol II - non-international conflicts
    • Additional Protocol III - additional distinctive emblem.

    See also:

    Increasing respect for international humanitarian law in non-international armed conflicts  

    Who does the Geneva Conventions apply to?
    The Geneva Conventions apply in all cases of declared war, or in any other armed conflict between nations. They also apply in cases where a nation is partially or totally occupied by soldiers of another nation, even when there is no armed resistance to that occupation. more
    Does Ukraine follow the Geneva Convention?
    Both Ukraine and Russia are parties to the 1949 Geneva Conventions and Protocol I. What are the basic principles of the laws of war? International humanitarian law, or the laws of war, provides protections to civilians and other noncombatants from the hazards of armed conflict. more
    Who has violated the Geneva Convention?
    Today, the Conventions and their Protocols Additional, for which we call for universal ratification, are too often violated, whether in Syria, Libya, Yemen, Palestine, Afghanistan, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo or South Sudan. more
    Is Geneva Convention legally binding?
    The Geneva Conventions are multilateral, international treaties. This means that they bind only those nation-states that have signed, ratified, and deposited their ratification with the United Nations. more
    Which President signed the Geneva Convention?
    President Chester Arthur The United States signed the treaty in 1882 by President Chester Arthur and was ratified by Congress; the U.S. was the thirty-second nation to sign the agreement. The second Convention extended protection to wounded combatants at sea and shipwreck victims. more
    What are the 3 Geneva Protocols?
    The Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols
    • The First Geneva Convention protects wounded and sick soldiers on land during war.
    • The Second Geneva Convention protects wounded, sick and shipwrecked military personnel at sea during war.
    • The Third Geneva Convention applies to prisoners of war.
    Is Russia violating the Geneva Convention?
    While all 196 countries comply with the Geneva conventions, in 2019, Russia withdrew itself from Article 90 of protocol 1. more
    Can a widow enter a convent?
    In the Middle Ages, widows with financial means entered convents to maintain social respect. more
    Are the Geneva Conventions legally binding?
    The Geneva Conventions are multilateral, international treaties. This means that they bind only those nation-states that have signed, ratified, and deposited their ratification with the United Nations. more
    Is Geneva a safe city?
    OVERALL RISK : LOW. Geneva is very safe to travel to. It is a country where every law is respected and the police are doing their job meticulously. Still, don't let your guard down and be vigilant at all times. more
    What is a nun convent?
    A convent is a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, monks or nuns; or the building used by the community, particularly in the Catholic Church, Lutheran churches, and the Anglican Communion. more


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