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Portugal. Portugal – Portugal was officially neutral during World War II. However, it maintained a close relationship with the UK, due to the alliance it had for the last six hundred years, which is the longest lasting military alliance in history.
At the start of World War II in 1939, the Portuguese Government announced on 1 September that the 550-year-old Anglo-Portuguese Alliance remained intact, but since the British did not seek Portuguese assistance, Portugal was free to remain neutral in the war and would do so.
The Treaty of Windsor (1386) between Portugal and England, is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force today. Salazar chose not to break the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance. On March 17, 1939, Portugal signed a treaty of friendship and non-aggression with Francoist Spain.
On March 9, 1916, Germany declares war on Portugal, who earlier that year honored its alliance with Great Britain by seizing German ships anchored in Lisbon's harbor. ... In order to secure international support for its authority in Africa, Portugal entered the war on the side of Britain and the Allies.
A minimum of 6,232 Portuguese died, including European and indigenous military personnel and civilians in the service of the armed forces, but we estimated that 8,787 Portuguese died (6,232 confirmed and 2,555 estimated).
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Portugal – Portugal was officially neutral during World War II. ... Portugal allowed the United States to use a secret military base at Santa Maria Airport in the Azores through a military agreement signed on 28 November 1944. This violated its neutrality and rendered Portugal as a non-belligerent on the Allied side.
As World War II raged across Europe, Portugal sold tungsten and other goods to Nazi Germany, profiting handsomely from its neutral status in the conflict. The Nazis paid with gold bullion looted from countries they conquered and, it is suspected, from victims of the Holocaust.
Portugal did not initially form part of the system of alliances involved in World War I and thus remained neutral at the start of the conflict in 1914. ... Approximately 12,000 Portuguese troops died during the course of World War I, including Africans who served in its armed forces in the colonial front.
Spanish–Portuguese War (1762–63), known as the Fantastic War. Spanish–Portuguese War (1776–77), fought over the border between Spanish and Portuguese South America. War of the Oranges in 1801, when Spain and France defeated Portugal in the Iberian Peninsula, while Portugal defeated Spain in South America.
Spanish and Nazi intelligence activities
Spain was nominally neutral during World War II, though under General Franco's far-right Nationalist regime it was politically aligned with Nazi Germany. Spain did not actually join the Axis side but it collaborated with the Nazis in many areas.
Afghanistan, Andorra, Estonia, Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, San Marino, Sweden, Switzerland, Tibet, Vatican City, and Yemen were all neutral during the war.
Nations such as Italy, who had fought with the Axis powers alongside Nazi Germany, and those who remained neutral (e.g., Switzerland) received less assistance per capita than those countries who fought with the United States and the other Allied powers.
Ireland remained neutral during World War II. The Fianna Fáil government's position was flagged years in advance by Taoiseach Éamon de Valera and had broad support. ... However, tens of thousands of Irish citizens, who were by law British subjects, fought in the Allied armies against the Nazis, mostly in the British army.
Portugal's independence was recognized in 1143 by King Alfonso VII of León and in 1179 by Pope Alexander III. Portugal's Reconquista finished in 1249. Spain began with the Union of the crowns of Castile and Aragon in 1469, although it was not until 1516 when they had a single unified King.
Spain was too busy with England and had no armies available to fight back. With the amount of colonies Portugal controlled, it was in Spain's interest to still share the crown. a couple of battles later the spanish couldnt be bothered and gave away the rights to portugal.
The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas neatly divided the "New World" into land, resources, and people claimed by Spain and Portugal.
Portuguese neutrality ended in 1916 after the Portuguese seizure of German merchant ships resulted in the German Empire declaring war on Portugal. The expeditionary force was raised soon after and included around 55,000 soldiers.
Germany and its allies were known as the Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary, later joined by the Ottoman Empire (Turkey plus the Middle East) and Bulgaria.
President Bernardino Marchado (6 August 1915 – 5 December 1917) President Sidónio Pais (28 April – 14 December 1918) President João do Canto e Castro (14 December 1918 – 5 October 1919) President António José de Almeida (5 October 1919 – 5 October 1923)
Brazilian troops fought in Italy from September 1944 to May 1945, while the Brazilian Navy and Air Force participated in the Battle of the Atlantic from mid-1942 until the end of the war.
However, there is a general consensus that Salazar was one of the most influential figures in Portuguese history. In recent decades, "new sources and methods are being employed by Portuguese historians in an attempt to come to grips with the dictatorship which lasted 48 years."
The Ottoman Empire, often known as Turkey, was not part of the Central Powers alliance in August 1914, but it had declared war on most of the Entente Powers by the end of 1914.